Celts and Magyars


Sándor Timaru-Kast


About the origin of the Celts, their arrival in Europe and their settling in the Carpathian Basin

The Celts

"The first people living in this land (Hungary) whose name was preserved, were the Celtic people who swarmed out of Asia 5-600 years B.C. These people were already familiar with iron which is more perfect than stone or bronze. They occupied the land with weapons made of iron and thus became lords over this land. They cultivated the land, engaged in animal husbandry, conducted commerce.." wrote the Hungarian author Elek Benedek in his book "Hazánk története" (1927/1995, p. 5.)

When we talk about the Celts, most Hungarians conjure up the cartoon figure Asterix, but do we also remember that the person who placed the royal crown upon the head of our first Saint King was a "Celt' too? - Asterik. The tourist who visits Budapest is of course introduced to the Gellért Mountain in the city (Kelen Mountain in ancient times). Menhirs guard the memory of the Celts here. I wonder how many Hungarians know that there is a "Kelta'-street in the 3rd district of Budapest and that Budapest itself was built upon an old Celtic settlement bearing the name Aquincum. This name from the Roman era is more than probably a translation (or Latinized form) of the ancient Celtic name of this settlement, which was probably AUBHWN, meaning "Water-home" ("Ofen" was the name of this city in the early Middle Ages, which is not connected with the German word meaning "baking oven" - just as the name "Pest" is not a Slavic name.) North of this arose once the proud city of Sicambria, the Celtic city, which could have been called SICAN[1]-BHARR before it became Latinized. This name means "Szék-bérces" in Hungarian (a 'Seat' upon a hill) - this type of word composition was also part of the Hungarian language structure; for further examples see Hegy-magas at Lake Balaton, or Becs-kerek in the Bánság. (In Irish, SUIOCHAN (szikán) means a seat, seating place, bench; seat as a seat of a settlement, a residence; a gathering, assembly, a court of law) [<=> see szék chair, seat, Ancient Turkish SAKU chair, Tatar SEKE bench, Japanese SEKI seat, seating place] + BARR top, top of a mountain.

The Huns stormed the Roman sentries (limes), who guarded this side of the Danube line and - maybe even with the help of the Celts - gained a brilliant victory. The (Pannon)-Celts were engaged in a continuous, savage struggle against the Roman occupiers and a whole series of insurrections forced the Romans to send their armies in ever-increasing numbers to Celtic regions and destroy, with increasing severity, the Celtic civilization. They even wanted to eradicate their memory from consciousness and from history the way they had done with the Etruscans. For this reason, the Hun-Celtic cooperation was very understandable, and this existed even at the time of Atilla (Eudoxius - AUDAX - "Ádáz" in Hungarian - was a Gallic Druid, who was Atillas physician and advisor. He was the one, who accompanied our great King to his wars in Gaul and who negotiated with the local Celtic leaders). BODUA is the Celtic word for "victory" and it is possible that the incoming Hun troops were greeted with a joyful exclamation of "Bodua!" The victorious Huns were considered liberators because their society did not practice the inhuman institution of slavery of the "civilized" Romans. After the "victory" BUDA was built, the "Ancient Buda" (Ős-Buda), which we know as "Atilla's castle" (Etzilburg) from history.

It may be that the Celtic-Pannons and the Hun-Magyars understood one another, and when sitting together, drinking a cup of fine Celtic MEDU - Hun MEDOS (Hungariar "mézes") (English MEAD), there is no doubt they did. We know from the Greek chronicler Diodoros that the Celts loved to have a good time, to eat, drink and enjoy themselves, but this was done in a very ceremonial manner: Lords and servants ate together, seated arouni huge kettles of meat. The Celts, just like the Huns, cooked their stew-like meals in huge kettles. The Druid (Torda) blessed the meals (Irish ALTA-igh = álda-ni), and gave thanks to God (Irish ALTU = áldás, hálaadás) for his help. After this, the feast began. The heroes of the battle got the finest pieces. They held the big "drumsticks" and bit off the meat the tougher pieces were cut off with their daggers, which were carried in a sheath on their belts, just for such an occasion. There were always some particles of food left on their bush-mustaches. The remarkable mustache served as a sieve, while drinking the sweet liquids. The Celts drank beer (CURU) and honey-wine (MEDU). They used honey to make the MEDU (Breton MEZ = Hungarian méz). They often became drunk at such feasts, got into arguments and frequently into fights, because they were supposedly hot-tempered. The Celts also liked to enjoy themselves (Irish SCOIR = szór; Irish SCORAIOCHT = szórakozás / SORCHA gay, of sunny disposition). Musicians were always present at such feasts, as can be seen depicted on a vessel found in Sopron. The Celts liked to talk everything to death, to recite poems, measure their strength in competition[2] and to wrestle[3], to organize horse races, to participate in group competitions and to play a game similar to European football.[4] This game is still liked in Ireland and it is called the Irish or Celtic soccer. FID-CHELL was a strange game which meant - as I read it in a German translation: "hölzerne Weisheit" ("wood-wisdom").[5] Diodoros tells us that this was a war-game played on a board with wooden figures, called fa-csel in Hungarian! In Irish FID=fa + CHELL = trick, game CALAOIS = to trick, CEALG to trick, to fish, CEALA =to make something disappear, to hide[6] = Hungarian: csal, csel, csali (see Turkish CAL-mak steal, (CAL-dir-mak to play, to trick).

Who were the Celts and from where did they come?

According to Myles Dillon and Nora Chadwick, the first Celtic settlements appeared in the British Isles in the Early Bronze Age (around 1180 B.C.). They consider England's indigenous population at the end of the Stone Age to be Proto-Celts. Leon E. Stover and Bruce Kraig, English archaeologists, deduce from the prehistoric finds in Wessex and Hungary that the Celts may have been already present in Europe in the third millennium B.C. This date surpassed by far the imaginings of 19th century linguists and ethnographers who believed the Celts to be of Indo-European origin...[7]

As a result of contemporary research, it has become clear that the Celts had very little connections with the (Indo)-European people whom the massive Central Asian wave of migration found here, at the end of the New Stone Age, at the edge of Europe, between the Northern and Southern seas. At that time, Central Europe, beginning from the Northern slopes of the Alps to the Central Mountain region of the Germanic territories, i.e. the Danube-Main-Rhine region, was covered by thick and extensive forests. There could not have been considerable population here.

Three-thousand years ago, the extent of slash and burn deforestation increased markedly, which we can deduce from the amount of burnt wood and charcoal found in the soil strata. This is connected with the gradual arrival of the Central Asian equestrians to Central Europe. We cannot give a reliable answer as to the reason that they started to come toward the West. Maybe overpopulation presented a problem, but it could also be that climate-changes were to blame. The spread or migration was made possible by the wagons which the equestrian cultures were able to create. They were able to breed horses strong enough to pull these wagons and travel long distances with them. The Scythians and also the Cimmerians (who are hard to pin down in history) spread and, when the latter made military incursions into the Danube Basin, they were joined by Thracians in the territory of the Northern Balkans.[8]

Researchers have discovered that, in Western Europe, many geographical names have absolutely no meaning in the language of the present population and cannot be explained either with Latin or the Germanic languages, but they are still a living part of the Hungarian language, like the words kő, mező, falu (stone, meadow, village) etc. which appear as intricate word-compositions in the Hungarian language.

Who actually created the first civilization of (Western)-Europe? ... The Celts!

Ephoros the Greek chronicler of the 4th century B.C. counts the Celts among the world's greatest peoples along with the Scythians, Persians and Libyans. The Celts populated Europe from the British Isles to the Lower-Danube and even beyond, toward Scythia and Asia Minor. Around 500 B.C. all of Europe was "in Celtic hands."

The Celts were not unknown among the Magyar chroniclers either. In the first part of the Képes Krónika (The Illustrated Chronicle, Kálti Márk, 1358), the "Book of Creation" refers to Josephus Flavius and Hieronymus and gives some brief information about the three sons of Noah: "They spread into three directions of the World; Shem received Asia, Ham Africa and Japheth Europe as their share."[9] We know from Josephus Flavius' work "The History of the Jews" that this Japheth had seven sons (Hittites/Hettites? - In Hungarian hét means seven), "whose lands stretched from the Taurus and Amanus mountains in Asia to the river Tanais (Don) and Gadira in Europe." These territories were until then uninhabited and the people who settled these lands gave them their own name. The Jewish historian tells us the names of Japheth's sons too: Gomár, Magóg, Madai, Javán, Tubái, Mosoch and Thyras, Their people received their names from them: "This is how the present day Galatians were called Gomar and todays Scythians, Magors, after their forefather Magog..." - says Flavius. The Hungarian Képes Krónika calls the Galatians Galls and writes that, after the fall of Troy, they fled to Pannónia. So, in summary, the Celts (Galls, Galatas) were descendants of GOMAR and the Magyars (Magors, Scythians) from his brother MAGOG. According to Irish traditions the first Irish occupiers of the land were Partholon and Nemed, descendants of Magog.[10]

The Celtic archaeological finds that are considered the earliest are from 1000 B,C, (the Upper-Austrian Hallstatt finds). These form the transition between the Bronze and Iron Age cultures. A Bronze Age Scythian kurgan (burial mound) was also found here. This settlement ceased to exist in the 4th century B.C., probably because of an "earthquake." The direct continuation of this culture is the so- called "La Têne" culture, which may have formed around 450 B.C. This is already a typical Iron Age Celtic settlement. We know from the discoverer of the La Têne civilization, Friedrich Schwab, that he found this ancient settlement - which is now under water - during his excavations at the Neuenburger Lake in Switzerland. This Celtic "village" came to light at a place, near the Eastern shore of the lake, where the water-level was low. The local Vels (French Swiss) call it" LA-TENE," which is translated by the scientist as 'Untiefe' - (shallow)[11] > zátony in Hungarian, in Irish ATOIN [atóny] <=> "La-TENE" (> see also: BALA which means a wider section of the river between two bends - TANAI = shallow water.)

The Scythian influence upon the Celts appears not only in the metal (gold and iron) objects which were unearthed by archaeologists, but in the "kurgan"-style burial custom too. We find a great number of similar raised grave-sites (kunhalmok)[12] all over the British Isles - at Stonehenge or in the region of the famous "crop circles" in Marlborough County with its giant-kurgan - and also in Brittany, Karnag, the famous Celtic "stone-sea" settlement where the "St. Michaels Mount" stands. The name Karnag is derived from the Breton-Celt word for kurgan, which is the same as the Irish CARNAN, little hill, grave[13]. With the appearance of the huge "kunhalom" or kurgans, the first significant gold finds appeared in Central Europe, the earlier ones usually arrived there with commerce. These graves are the same as the kurgans of the equestrian nomads, north of the Caspian and the Black Sea, who became famous for their love of gold and the their skill in metal-working. They were also famous for their animal-husbandry, the taming of the wild horse and the manufacture of wagons that were suitable for transporting their wares. Their society showed a clear structure (which was easy to survey), and strong princes (CEAN = khan) ruled over the tribes.[14]

The Celts were already described by Caesar as an "equestrian" people in his De Bello Galileo. Horses played a central part in the lives of the Celts. They were "crazy for horses"; they were willing to give their entire fortune for a good horse from the "East". The Celtic heroes were buried with their beloved horses (see the Bronze Age equestrian burials at Ribemont-sur-Ancre in France). They were able to maintain command even at full gallop, or they stood on the beams of the battle-chariots to fight the enemy with their notorious double edged "Celtic swords" while the horses moved on at full gallop. They chopped off the head of the enemy with one strike, during an attack on horseback, and hung the head onto the bridle. As with all equestrian societies, the soul played an enormous role in their belief system. The cutting off the head of the enemy (where the "door" of the soul is) was not only proof of heroism, but it also meant the ownership over the soul of the fallen enemy, thus preventing its wrath. The military leaders wore a helmet decorated with a bird called SÓLYOM (falcon), because the "sólyom" was the image, the symbol of the (War)-God "who helps in battle." Before the battle they made a "tremendous noise" - writes Livius, the 1st century Roman chronicler, "they strengthened themselves with awful songs and exclamations" (and scared the Romans), "the battle-cries, the battle-songs and the tremendous noise which they created by pounding on their shields had one goal which was the intimidation of the enemy" - concludes the chronicler. It was also a tool of intimidation when they stiffened their hair with a mixture of limestone and "sapo" which had a plant origin[15], and the hair was brushed back (imitating the mane of their horses this way), and their long, hanging, bushy mustache - according to Diodoros - even increased the frightening image. The Celtic men and women both wore their hair in long braids (Irish CIAB, COPF, The Celtic attire was very colorful: the men wore wide pants (BOLAG "sack or bubble-like wide pants") with which - according to the Romans - they wore very brightly-colored shirts with navy-blue or black vest (MAELLAN, mellény), woolen cloak (SEAC, zeke) or a short, tightly fitted coat (CABHAIL, kabát), they hung an ornate bag upon their wide belt (CRIOS) which held their clothing (GUNA, gúnya) together and on their feet they wore short boots or sandals (BROG).

The Celts were very brave in battle, daring and self-sacrificing, and valor was to them the greatest glory. Caesar tells us in his work, dealing with the Gallic battles, that he was told by the Celts, that there is nothing of which they were more afraid, than that "the sky would fall upon their heads"![16] What other people have such a twisted thinking? Only the Hungarians! They say: "The sky might fall upon them" (as it did quite a few times). The sky is falling, earth is moving, there is a knock upon my head, you run too my friend.... we can read in Hungarian children's stories. Are these only accidental parallels?

As I mentioned earlier the Magyar Képes Krónika also mentions the Celts as the people of Gomar, who - after the lost Trojan battle - fled from Asia Minor and settled in Pannónia. From here, after 400 years of habitation, they moved to GauL At this point the importance of the story is not whether the chronicler was correct in identifying the ancestors of the two peoples (the Scythian-Magyars and the Celts), with Biblical persons but that he described the rise and fall of the Hallstatt culture, 5 centuries before this was discovered!

Several proofs testify to the fact that, here in the Carpathian Basin, a "new" people was born. We have to mention that first of all, the "chief-Goddess", DANU (DEA-ANU, meaning Good-Mother (Jó-anya ~ Édes anya in Hungarian), the other name of ANU "ancient Mother", was born here. The Mother Goddess, DANU, was the name giver of the DUNA (Danube), thus changing her earlier name ISTER. The name Ister was bequeathed to us by the Greeks but, supposedly, even this may be of Celtic origin, since in Breton even today STER is the word for "river". The Celtic settlers - who, in my opinion spread from this base in all directions of the compass - settled Europe, and even though they could not take with them their Ancient Mother, DANU, (so write the Irish Chronicles), her name was carried on in the names of their rivers, from the DON River in England and Scotland to the French River DON. They are the sons of "DANU" (the clan 'Danu' of Tuatha Dé Dannan), or the children of the Mother Goddess. The DUNA became the "holy river" of the Druids, because the Ancient Mother DANU lived in it. They called the land, where they were forced to leave the Ancient Mother, or God behind - since God was a mother - ANNWN (pron. ANNUN) in Irish, "Anyahon" in Hungarian. To use another expression, this was "the land of the Woman" - the BANNWN (pron.: BANNÚN), verbatim: NÉNE-/BANYA-HON)[17]. In the name of BANNWN it is easy to recognize the later Latin "Pannónia", the land of the DANU/DUNA, the land of the "Good-Mother" (Jóanya), the later land of the Virgin Mother (Boldogasszony). ANNWN was also the name for the Otherworld.

They also called this land MAGH MAR, "Mező-széles" (wide meadow), which is the land of rivers with sweet and mellow waters, where

"there is a wide variety of the honey-beer and wine" and where "impeccably beautiful people live"; in this land there is no "mine and yours" [...] "the splendid clothing of our hosts is a pleasure to the eye; their faces are resplendent in the shades of the fox-glove" and "even though it is nice to look at the Plains of Fái (the Irish "lowlands"), after having seen Magh Már this seems to be a barren land..."[18]

In Europe there is only one "Broad Meadow" (Magh Már), where, even today, the memory of the "Ancient Mother" is alive and well; Hungary is the land of "Boldogasszony", the Great Madonna - which is unique in Europe!... It is noteworthy that Ireland is also the "Land of the Mother of God": the honor which embraced the Madonna (ANU, DANU) in pagan Ireland and her several forms were partly transferred to the Virgin Mary. In Celtic society there is an oral tradition about the central role of the mother, and one saying from the Hebrides says: "In the heart of God there is the heart of a mother."[19] So it is understandable that the Irish too have a "Motherland".

After the death of Atilla and after the loss of the Carpathian Basin as part of the Hun Empire, the Celts of Pannónia (along with the Scythian-Hun-Székely people) must have remained on the land of the DANU-DUNA, namely in their "Motherland" since, later on, we will find Celts in the Avar army too.[20]

The memory of the Celts remained not only in the "Magyar style swords of European rank" made by Celts in the territory of Hungary, not only in their art in general (deer, griffin and ivy motifs, etc.) but also in the present day Hungarian language and some names of towns too.

A distinctive feature of the Celts was a neck-band, the so called torque (TORC) around their neck (see Ancient Turkish Taryq-mag - to become tight). This was not characteristic of any European people with one exception:

"The Hun leading class could be identified by archaeologists, by these very heavy gold torques, in the graves of men as they wandered from East to West, from Central Asia and from one of the tributaries of the Lena River in Western Siberia, all the way to the Balkans. It is very characteristic that almost one third of these torques and, let us add, the heaviest ones, came to light from the Carpathian and Vienna Basin.[21]

Researcher Lajos Csomor in his book "Őfelsége, a Magyar Szent Korona" states that

"the workmanship of the goldsmiths of Western Europe in the Early Middle Ages was mainly based upon the Celtic goldsmith art of Sumerian and Egyptian origin" (p.57), and adds later, in connection with the Hungarian Holy Crown: "Such pendants were first prepared in Mesopotamia. This technique - in a modified form - reached the Celts. [...] This art arrived - later with the Huns and Magyars - through Urartu and Iran to Bactria, between the 2nd century B.C. and the 2nd century A.D., and it is present among the Huns in the Turanian lowlands - all the way to the 5th century. It is probable that the Avars learned this technique here too, and they use this in their Eastern European settlements and the Carpathian Basin (Darufalva find)"[22]

Old writings are usually tight-lipped concerning the Scythian-Celtic relationships, just as todays history books are, but we now know that - even though this relationship was not always peaceful - it was a lot more intense than we had thought until today; Kinder and Hilgemann, German historians, have the following opinion of this relationship;

"The (Scythian)-Cimmerians, with the adoption of the Taurican[23] (Meotis) cultural elements, had a strong influence upon the Hallstatt Culture and so they become the transmitters of the cultural elements of Asia Minor. The Scythians influenced the later Hallstatt Culture and the La Têne culture. [...] They buried their dead placed upon a wagon in the grave. (This is a Scythian influence)"[24]

The two authors continue about the La Têne (typically Celtic) culture:

"In the surrounding territories, the indigenous population undergoes a strong 'Celticizing process."

Christiane Éluere, a French historian, also calls this process "die Keltisierung Europas" in her book "Die Kelten' (1994): The Greeks and the Romans considered all Northern-Europeans to be definitely Celts and Scythians until the first century B.C.[25]

O. E. MEINANDER, a historian from Helsinki, after having established the fact that the settling of the ancient Finns in the Eastern Baltic region - who were the carriers of the typical ceramic culture with "comb-design" - ended by the 3rd millennium B.C., nevertheless states: The arrival of the people of the Linear Band ceramics (the battle-axe culture) (i.e. the Scythians - 2400-1900 B.C.) played a great role in the development of the Finn people even though they are often considered Indo-Germanic[26]. In other words, from the mixture of the ancient Finns and the (ancient) Scythians in the Baltic area, the Finn people and language developed. With this theory, Meinander duly explains the Finn-Magyar "relationship!"

The "battle-axe" (fokos) peoples Indo-Germanic status is refuted by Kinder and Hilgemann, who point out that, even though the people of the Linear Band ceramics (the battle-axe people) were not Indo-Germans they took part in the Indo-Germanizing process of Europe.[27] By today even this role of "Indo-Germanization" is in doubt. Because of certain similar traits between the middle Central European and Kurgan cultures of that age, some historians were led to believe that they could also reconstruct linguistic parallels. This is how the theory arose, according to which the "South Russian" semi-nomads determinedly moved to the West and they started Europe's Indo-Germanization there. The most famous of this school of thought was Marija Gimbutas from the Baltics (Lithuanian by birth), who died in 1994, and who achieved her fame as Professor of Archaeology at the University of Los Angeles; her theory was accepted by many and they also became well known. However, not all researchers agreed with her theory and some even refuted it. Rieckhoff, in his book Faszination Archeologie" (1990, p. 52.) writes the following:

"Many signs point to the fact that, by the end of the New Stone Age, Europe belonged in the Indo-European family of languages, but nothing proves that this was the result of the influx of bellicose nomads who lived in the South-Russian steppes, considering that at that time neither battle-chariots nor equestrian fighters existed. Something very different arrived from the grasslands: economic and technical innovations, which decisively influenced the culture of Central Europe. The kurgan-style burials (Kun-hills) and the cultic and decorative use of gold were surely components of this (culture-) import.[28]

We have more data to prove the Scythian-Magyar connections. Barry Cunliffe, British historian, writes the following:

"North of the Caucasus [...] there is endless grassland, which reaches from China to Europe and provides the necessary conditions for the constant migrations. Huge rivers: the Volga, Don, Dnieper, Bug, Dniester and the Lower Danube cut into this region which, in the South is grassland and tundra in the North. The still nameless equestrian and livestock-raising peoples roamed in this "endlessness". They were called in later historical writings: Cimmerians, Scythians, Sarmatians, Alans, Huns, Magyars, Bulgarians and Mongols. They, too, influenced the culture of Europe, when they crossed the Danube-corridor or, circumventing the Carpathians they arrived in the Northern European flatlands. [...] the people of the Puszta played an important role in the development of European culture.[29]

The equestrian nomadic Celts settled down, after they had arrived in Central Europe. In the hitherto often-quoted book (Auf der Suche nach dem Gold der Kelten), in the chapter about the Celtic origins and their settlement (Die Kelten: Herkunft und Sesshaftwerdung) we receive an explanation about the reasons for their settling down and their circumstances: We can only guess what methods they used to search out a new home for themselves. More than likely, gold played a part in this selection, since to own gold meant the same as taking part in eternity and, therefore, to be in contact with the eternal gold. The precious metals had only a secondary material value. The Celts brought with them from their ancient homeland, the region above the Caspian and Black Seas, not only the worship of gold, but the knowledge of gold-mining and its workmanship too. The incoming nomads must have found immense amounts of gold here three-thousand years ago - as compared with later centuries - because they were the first, who were able to mine the gold regularly (BAIN, bánya, bány-ász, bányászni = to mine, to dig out). After the arrival of the Eastern peoples, the Danube Valley was used as a natural road for traffic. Following the river meant more than just the selection of a natural road since, in the Danube, one can wash gold even today, as in Hungary, for example. The equestrian nomads followed the tracks of the gold.[30] The German research team continues: In the process of selecting a settlement, the advantages of a settled life had to outweigh the disadvantages associated with it, and these had to be the decisive factor. A settled life had its difficulties too. As with all equestrian nomads, for the Celts too, the changing circumstances of keeping horses must have been the greatest worry. Horses were not kept as easily as dogs, because the animals which were used to the endless grasslands needed an acceptable environment. He who takes his horse out of its usual environment and breeds it in a totally changed environment, lacking a natural dry pasture, has to provide pastures and an adequate place to roam. Western Europe, especially the foothills of the Alps, was rich in immense, dense broad-leaf forests, bogs and wet meadows. For this reason the equestrian nomads settled in the elevated places - far from the rivers - because only in this way could they provide their horses with an acceptable environment and protect them from the inflammation of their hooves, which is caused by wet meadows.[31]

So, actually, who were the Celts?

They were an equestrian people of Central Asian (Scythian) descent, who settled down after they arrived in Europe. The Celts are characterized by medium high stature, stocky body-structure, round heads, oval faces with pronounced cheek bones, braided brown hair and long, hanging, thick and rich mustaches.

Their society shows the same triune division as that of the incoming Magyars: The Reigning Prince (CEAN, Fejedelem) and his entourage (táltos, treasurer, translator, etc.), the fighters (FLATHA, lófő) and the heads of the BO-clans, the large-animal owners (BO-AIRIGH).

Their doctors (Druids, Torda) were familiar with the trepanation of skulls, a method of healing, which was known only to the “Magyar” (Turanian) people.

The music of the Celts is still pentatonic and closely resembles the Hungarian music. One of their most beautiful dances is the COR (to turn, twirl spin), which, when combined with their word DEAS, meaning beautiful ornate, gives the name of a Magyar dance, the "csár-dás". The Romans called the dance of a "Transalpine" people (beyond the Alps, foreign) CORD AX, which - according to the dictionary means "ornate, splendid dance (üppiger tanz in German)! We wonder which people had this dance that the Romans so admired: the Celts, or the Scythian-Hun-Magyars?

In regard to the Irish music, Lars Kabel writes in his booklet entitled 'Irisch-Gálisch Wort für Wort' the following:

"ein uns fremd anmutender, beinahe orientalisch klingender Klagegesang", which means he considered the Irish music foreign sounding, almost an Eastern plaintive sound.

"The musical world of the Irish and the Moldavian Magyars is similar, not only in its spirit and intensity, but also in its pentatonic structure, division, and type. A jig?[32], the oldest of the male dances strongly resembles its eastern counterpart, where men and women dance in a circle and the twirling, intermixed with sudden stops, can still be found among the non-city dwellers" - writes the Magyar Nemzet in its 1998 November 5 issue with the title: Tiszán innen Dublin túl (This side of the Tisza, beyond Dublin) (Irish and Moldavian Csángó folk music in the Fonó) [This is an adaptation of the title of a Hungarian song entitled: Tiszán innen Dunán túl, meaning: This side of the River Tisza, beyond the river Danube. The fonó is a place where women get together to spin and tell stories, sing, etc at the same time. The translator]

As for the Celtic (Breton) folk attire and musical roots, which are still living, even the Bretons themselves look toward Turan. The Breton folk art, folk customs, traditions, their "stick-dances" and equestrian parades are very close to their Hungarian counterparts.

Today, the Irish are Western Europe's greatest horse breeders. The young Breton man, reaching adulthood, receives a horse as a present, so that he may take his beloved (BAB, baba, young woman, lover), BABAM, my lover, (babám) in his saddle to the church wedding (MIONN - girls headdress, ancient Irish NAS-adh = wedding, nász).

The ancient Celtic writing was the runic script. One of the most beautiful examples of this runic writing can be found on the bronze plate in the Saragossa region of Spain. The Irish carved their runic letters onto sticks, of which Gyula Sebestyén already wrote in his series "Rovás és rovásírás" in the "Ethnographia" magazine (1903-1904):

"Among the older Irish, the indigenous population read their prayers not from rosaries but from runic-sticks"

The inscriptions on the giant stones in Scotland, Ireland and Northern England are written with OGHAM-writing (see Ancient Irish OG to carve, to incise) ~ ék-írás / writing in Hungarian ('AKOM-bákorn' shapeless, childish signs). This type of writing is etched into stone or cut into wood with straight, line-like signs which were used only to commemorate different ceremonial events.[33].


Celtic runic writing on a bronze plate from Botoritta (Spain, Saragossa region).

Today, they use the Latin letters and suffer with these as much as we Hungarians do. The concept of rovás (runic) could not have come from any other people, since the word "rovás" can be understood only in Hungarian and Irish (rov-ás <=> Irish RIABH a streak, a line, a trace), and was derived from the Hungarian verb róni (to carve) and the Irish RIONN (to chisel, to carve). In the beginning, writing was every peoples own "secret": in Irish RUN means secret. This "secret" was taken over by the early Germans, who called their writing, which was taken over from others, "gravieren, stechen, einmeißeln" (Gothic 'gameleins' - writing). Who "lent" what to whom and to what end?

If we would now like to examine the spiritual identity of the Irish and Magyars it would be enough to quote Margaret MacCurtain, Irish historian, who wrote: "Aggressive-imperialistic nations have a fatherland (patria), while countries that suffered under foreign rule for centuries, like Ireland, have a Motherland"[34]

II. In the beginning was the Word...

The Celtic language (and its Hungarian parallels).[35]

Our everyday Hungarian language is so much a part of us that nobody raises the question as to why we use today words as srác, csitri, baka, góbé, balhé or baki. There would be nothing strange about this situation if these were not the same in Celtic too, in sound and meaning. The meaning of the above words in todays Irish: SRAC honest, lively, quarrelsome, mischievous (boy); CAITHRE adolescent girl; BUACHA young soldier; (BACÁIN military training); GORÁN funny, wily; BUALLEY [ballhé] discord, fight, argument and BACAÍ to trip; slip of the tongue (BAC barrier, bar)! All these words along with many other concepts are the "offspring" of the common language that spread in the last centurys industrialization, which was the language of the rural communities that moved into the capital city. I believe none of our linguists would ever think of making a statement that these words were brought from Ireland by a laborer, as a "borrowed" slang...

Sir John Bowring (1792-1872), English linguist, who translated many Hungarian poems into English, wrote the following in the foreword for his book "Poetry of the Magyars" which was published in 1830:

"The roots of the Magyar are for the most part exceedingly simple and monosyllabic, but their ramifications are numerous, consistent, and beautiful. I know of no language which presents such a variety of elementary stamina, and none which lends itself so easily and gracefully to all the modifications growing out of its simple principles."

In the Bible we read "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God."

- in the beginning was the Word: ige in Hungarian, GU in Irish: to speak, to give voice, word (<=> Hungarian ige, hang),

- and the Word was God: GUÍ [gí] prayer, (ég = God, ige = word of God),

- and God was the Word: ég, aga <=> Finn UKKO <=> Hun, Ancient Türk OGAN "Sky-God" <=> Irish OGHMA "a very strong, eloquently speaking, defending god, god of death and at the same time god of joy, wealth and wisdom too, who is like the Sun, the Sungod".

Considering the above, the question seems justified:

What language did the Celts speak? Is the Hungarian language related to the Celtic language, or the Celtic to the Hungarian language?

We know regrettably little about the ancient Celts, but we did inherit the immense material and spiritual legacy of a great people. We have discovered by now that, not only the names of some weapons (like gladius - CALAD in Celtic, kard in Hungarian), but also words of technical advancements which went from Celtic into Latin. (Who were the heirs?). So the Latin "sagi" (sack) originated from the Celtic SEAC (zeke), which originally meant a cloak. The fact came to light within contemporary research (Ellis: 'Die Druiden') that the roads crisscrossing Europe were not built by the Romans but by the Celts, before the Roman occupation, to accommodate the ox-drawn wagons, the CARBANTU: CAR means wagon, BAINT (vont, össze-vont, vonat, etc.) to attach, to pull as one (train).

The "official" linguists state that the Celtic language is Indo-Germanic, even though, if we only look at some geographic names, or names of the "gods" or important persons, - and these even in Latinized form - from Ireland to Hungary, we can barely state that it is Indo-Germanic in character. Such is ANU, the "Ancient Mother", (ős-anya) "the mother of the Irish Gods" ('Mater deorum Hibernensium' - Cormacs Glossary), or ESUS, the ancient God of the Gauls (Welsh OES - old, ancestor; ősz, ős), or the old Irish DAGHDHA, the Good God (Good-father) - who was also called NUADHU "The Great God" or EU-CHAIDH "great-great-grandfather" and also RUADH ROFESSA, "the red-haired cunning one" - who was the son of DANU (Good Mother) and Bel (Father-God) and so the "ancient father of all Celts". We may also remember ULAID, the Irish leader, who was the "first" on his land, the Irish "CUIGE ULAIDH" - (Előd vidéke) = the land of the forefather, the English Ulster county (Northern-Ireland), or the Gallic freedom-fighter and hero VERCINGETORIX and his castle called AVARICUM, and it would be truly difficult to call all these Indo-Germanic words and names. Interestingly the "Franks" who moved into Gallia did not dream of a common Indo-Germanic base, since todays French city of "Bourges" (German Burg, meaning castle, vár) was built upon the ruins of "Avaricum". Are these incidental correspondences, or simply translations?

One more word about the Franks: In Breton, FRANKIZ means free, independent. After Atillas victorious battle the BRO FRANKIZ was born, which means "Free Empire!" According to the Frankish origin saga, a huge white sow (Hu. Emse) came out of the sea and bore the first Merovingian King. (In Hungarian tradition, "Emese" was the mother of Almos, ancestor of the Magyars.) The Merovingians were also buried with partial horse funerals, like the incoming Magyars of the 9th century. The Merovingian dynasty was destroyed too...

Can there be some connection - relationship - between the Celtic and Hungarian languages?

In order to be able to give an answer we have to examine the characteristics of the Celtic language (languages):

URRA lord, úr in Hungarian; URR-AIM honor / GAOIS [gis] intelligence; GAOIS-EACH [giseh] intelligent

- The Irish language strongly differentiates the short and long vowels both in speech and writing: A - Á, E - É, I - í, O - Ó, U - Ú: ALTÁN mountain pass, brook BEITHÉ ridicule, to mock, CIPÍN stick, ORDÓG thumb, URRÚS stronghold.

Welsh YSGOL (school), YSBATA (hospital - ISPOTÁLY), etc.

Ir: NACH (NE- + CHA) = Hu: sem; > NACH MÓR, NACH BEAG Hu: se-nem nagy, se-nem kicsi - it is neither big, nor small

NIL (NÍ-BHFUIL) [NÍ=NEM + (BH)FUIL=VALA], nincs [NEM-IS] there is no...

TE, meleg, forró [Old Irish AED, tűz, tűzhely; DÓ-igh, izzik, ég / Welsh DE = DEL]; TE-AS, forró-ság, hőség (TŰZ); TE-AS-AI, forró, égő, tüzes (TÜZ-I); TE-OL, melegít, hevít; TE-OL-AI, meleg (DE-L-I - TULI-piros); TE-ALL-ACH, kályha; TE-NE, tűz ("IZZ-ÁNY" > TŰZ) [> see Sumerian UDUN tűzhely].

It needs to be added that, in old Irish, there was a so-called impersonal form of the verb "to be" which they wrote as FAIL, FEIL, FUIL, FILE <=> vala.

They still use this verbal form but only in interrogative sentences: AN BHFUIL vala-e.

TÁ SÉ AGAM, van az nekem; AGAT, neked; AIGE, neki; AGAINN, nekünk etc. (I have, you have, he has, we have, etc.) NÍL SÉ AGAM, nincs az nekem; AGAT, neked; AIGE, neki; AGAINN, nekünk etc.

      1. In one type of conjugation the D' (Old Irish DE, DO) is the sign of the past tense [> see -T].

      2. In the future tense "FIDH" is the suffix, which is formed from the verb FAIGH (fog, képes lesz) <=> todays Hungarian "fog” LÉI-FIDH ME (el-FOG-OM olvasni).

      3. It is worth examining the Hungarian - Irish - Turkish conditional forms too: - olvas-ná-m <=> Irish: LÉA-IF-INN <=> Türkish: OKU-SA-M.

These are some basic characteristics which in essence separate the Irish language from the structure of the "Indo-Germanic" languages.

Nem bánt az téged kap(hat)od te őt csak fizess
Nincs rám munka, amit tennem térj (rá) vissza ("visz-ra")[44]

Talking about the Celtic syntax, Sir John Morris Jones writes in his work: a 'Pre-Aryan Syntax in Insular Celtic that, even though linguists consider the Insular Celtic language to be Indo-Germanic, he believes that, according to their sentence structure, they are not.[45] It is no accident that the Irish call themselves "The Magyars of the West.” If we examine the Irish vocabulary, we find familiar word-groups, like: KÖR.

Hungarian Celtic English French German Russian
KOR-csoly-a CARR-sleamh-na SKATE PATIN SCHLIT(schuh) ?

We can see, from the above table, that only the Hungarian and Celtic languages have a true word-group for the word "kör" / circle. In the other Indo-European languages there are some connections with this word but by far not as often. I believe no sane person could imagine that the similarity of the Hungarian and Celtic word-groups was born by some kind of "chance" occurrence (this many incidental similarities would be a little too much!) or - according to the usual norms - that the Magyar took over the "kör" word-group from the Celts in total, or even that, by dipping into different sources and walking a different path, these words "evolved" into the same words. Undoubtedly, many English, French or German words originated from the Celtic, for example the French CLAIE = barrier, korlát in Hungarian. Other words belonging to the "KÖR" group are the following: kar-ima (CUAR, CRUINN, roundness, kerekség); ker-get (Old Irish GRENNAT, they chase, kergetnek; GUAREN to circle, kering köröz, környez; ker-ülő (COR, detour, kerülő; COR bealaig, detour, kerülő út); kör-ít (CÓIR-igh, köríteni; CÓIRIÚ, körítés); kör-nyék (má-GUAIRD, környék); kör-őz (GUAIRDEALL, körözés; GUAIRE, keringés); kör-ül (CUIR thart, körbe jár, körbe tart; CHUR ort, körös-körül); kör-zet (CRÍOCH, terület, vidék); kur-ta (GEARR, GAIRIDí; CIORRA- - GIORRA-); csavar (COR, csavar, csőről); forgat (FIAR, ferdít, ferdül), forgó csípő (CORR-óg hip, csípő); göndör (COIRNIN, göndör); görcs (CRANRA, görcs); gördül (COR, gurul); görnyed (CORADH, görnyedés, görbület; CUAR, görnyedt, görbe); perdül (COR, fordul, gurul perdül; perget (CORRA-igh, kavar, forgat, kering; COIRE, forgás, pörgés); teker (TOCHRAS, tekerés, Manx TOGHYR to twist, teker, felcsavar); her-g-el (CORR-aíl, hergelés) etc.

Of course these are not "accidents", our common past greets us in these. The Magyar and the Irish (Celtic) language form their words from similar word-groups, with similar suffixes and prefixes. The difference lies in the fact that they do not always attach identical suffixes or prefixes to a word-root.

"The Finno-Ugric theory is unproven. One cannot differentiate certain parallels in vocabulary which are valid only among the Finno-Ugric languages, but not for the other Eurasian languages, like the Altaj languages, the Turkish, Mongolian, Sumerian, etc.> [...] This applies to the original basic vocabulary and, in the research of language relationships, including the Finno-Ugric relationship, it is believed to be decisively important. Such categories of vocabulary belong here too, like pronouns, names of parts of the body, some objects or phenomena of nature, basic words of action and numerals..." writes László Marácz in his study: "A finnugor-elmélet tarthatatlansága nyelvészeti szempontból" (The Untenability of the Finno-Ugric Hypothesis from a Linguistic Point of View) [Túrán no. 5, November 1998, p.ll.].

When we attempt to form an opinion about the relationship of two languages, we have to deal with three main themes. In respect to the Hungarian-Celtic relationship, we have already talked about the similarities between the first two, the grammatical structure and syntax. I would like to talk here about the ancient layer of vocabulary. As Mrs. Zoltán Zsuffa wrote in her book 'Gyakorlati Magyar Nyelvtan' (Practical Hungarian Grammar):

"Undoubtedly we mean the words that describe a simple lifestyle, coexistence, the plants and animals of human environment and the words which denote our dealings with them" (p. 379); later she added: "Our vocabulary has preserved the evidence of its original place of belonging"

I found more than 1800 basic words, identical or similar, and these indicate a close relationship. Such are for example: Irish CEANN, Breton PENN and Hungarian fej, fő (személy); végrész (kéz-/láb-FEJ).

"There are no eternal truths and dogmas in science. There are only theories in science, which have to be confronted with the emerging new facts" (L. Marácz).

The greatest part of the ancient layers of Celtic vocabulary resemble the Hungarian. The majority of these words cannot be found in any other "Indo-European" language. Moreover, the Celtic language builds its words with the same system of suffixes and prefixes as the Magyar. The suffixes and prefixes are the same. I am not saying that the Hungarian language descended from the Celtic, just as, in my opinion, it did not originate from the Finno-Ugric or the Türk languages. The Finno-Ugric theory of origins and the migration of a "peaceful" little group of people - which was derived from this theory - as well as the theory of Türk origins, the theory of bellicose, uncompromising armies, under the leadership of a ruling class striving for world dominance, are simply figments of the imagination, the relics of past centuries and dreams based upon different motivations.

We, Hungarians, have always been Scythians, the descendants of the great Scythian "race", the "Sabarto asphalo" people. Of course this does not mean that the Türks or even the Finns are not our relatives. However, this relationship is the same as the one with the Celts. Even so, we do not know one another's language; we cannot exchange a conversation with the Finns, the Turks, or the Celts. It is the "curse", or more precisely the "divine gift" of the agglutinative languages, that they were able to evolve in total independence. They had no need for language rules in order to come into existence, because the nation lives in its language, and the nation is kept alive by its language. This is the speech of a free people, which evolved freely and consequently gave birth to a freely evolving language: it is the gift of God from up high, or maybe it is "the language of Heaven".[47]

III. The Clan of the Good Mother/Mother Goddess

Celtic religion, traditions, art and world-view

(The Celtic Legends and their Magyar parallels)

The Celtic legends are the product of a Clan-system which had an expressedly "animistic" world view. Celtic traditions are rooted in an animistic belief system (a belief, that every object has a soul, or a belief in spirits.) The Otherworld is interwoven with the world of mortals in every aspect of life: spirits, fairies, heroes and gods regularly make connections with the people; the omens of the elements determine the fate of plants, animals and people - as we read in Caitlin and John Matthews "The Great Handbook of Celtic Wisdom".[48] The authors state:

"We can hardly doubt that the majority of early Celtic clans had a shamanistic culture. In time a Táltos caste took the place of the early 'professional' shamans (FILIDH). They were the Druids, who were Táltos-priests, physicians, scientists at the same time and were surrounded by deep respect. The earlier Shaman worldview lived on, mostly in the songs of the bards, the Old-Irish AOS DANA (Magyar danos) and even within the families, in their superstitions".

"The Celtic Druids were a "non Arian priesthood " says Sir John Rhys. Julius Pokorny, a linguist from Vienna, wrote the following in his article in the Revue Celtic (On the Origins of Druidism):

"The Druids represent a religion that has many characteristics which are in essence foreign to the Indo-European belief system"[49]

The Celtic religion is "heroic': Heroes are gods and gods are heroes.[50] To the Celts their gods were not their creators but were considered to be their ancestors, or - in other words - some supernatural heroes.[51] Apart from this, in the light of today's researches, the Celts were Monotheistic, like the Magyars[52], or, as Origenes of Alexandria (185-254 A.D.), the leader of the Christian school confessed:

"The Celtic Druids prayed to one God, even before the birth of Jesus, so the Celts were ready made for Christianity based upon the teachings of the Druids, who preached the belief in one God."[53]

A "triune world" formed the Universe of their belief system through the Druid representation of ideal, Hungarian: ész, eszme, Celtic: EISCE, or IS EARD (Hungarian: ért-elme), in view of the wisdom, knowledge, fore-telling of the future and poetry's highest level (IS EARD, értelme = the meaning of something). There was the Upper World, where the "upper" God (DONN, OR DUINN - Hungarian - Ten) and his entourage (SUN, MOON, STARS) lived, the Middle World, the visible world of mortals, and a Lower World, the world of the ancestors, which was protected by a "lower" god. The three worlds were connected by a Tree of Life, more accurately, this was their axis, upon which the Druid (Hungarian - Táltos Irish DIAIL) was able to rise into the upper world of God, or descend into the lower empire of their ancestors. The Celtic Druid (Torda), during his altered state (Ir: RAMHAILLE - Hu: révülés) always rested his back against a big tree (a substitute for the Tree of Life). The tree can also be replaced by a men-hir. On top of the imaginary Tree of Life (BILE), in its crown, lived the Good God (DAGDA).[54] Dagda lived on top of such a large oak-tree even in their home in Asia Minor.[55] Dagda, according to todays spelling Daghdha, was the 'Good God' (DAGH-(A)DHA, (Jó-atya ~ Édesatya = Good Father in Hungarian). (See also Irish: AITE - foster-father, Old Irish DAGH > Welsh IACH > and Hungarian Magyar JO). From him all the Irish were descended and so he is the Father of all Irish, and the child of more ancient Gods. His mother was DANU the Mothergod, Mother Earth, his father BEL, the Emperor of the World of the Dead. DANU means Good Mother, DEA-ANU (Jó Anya in Hungarian, in ancient Irish DAGH > in Irish DEA and the other name or ANU, the Mother Goddess in Cormac's Glossary: Mater Deorum Hibernensium the Mother of the Gods of Ireland).[56].


The Celtic Tree of Life

Returning to the altered state (révülés), it is interesting that the word for this trance-travel is connected with the idea of a 'ferryman', révész in Hungarian, (RAMHAI in Irish). So, during the révülés, the Druid "rowed" - according to his desire and will - into another world: RÁMH-AÍ, Rév-ész in Magyar (=ferryman) RÁMH-A-IGH evezni (to row) > RÁMH-AIL-LE, Hungarian rév-ül-és (an altered state of consciousness).

According to TALIESIN, the Celtic-Brit minstrel with a Táltos mind: "The Tree of Life, the Axis of the World, connects Heaven (NEAMH, menny) and Earth (FÓD, főd)." The Tree of Life (World-Tree) is always in the center of the world. God lives above this World-Center. The Axis which cuts through the World-Center leads directly to God. The Tree of Life is destined to be substituted by the World Axis itself, through the workings of the huge tree which was chosen by the Druid. The Center of the World always coincides with the spiritual center of the Táltos - this is the center of the "magic circle", where the center is the Táltos himself, as he leans with his back to the Tree of Life (or any large tree which symbolises it). In this case the Druid - who could be man or woman alike(!) - just like in the case of the Magyar Táltos - was transfigured, became one with the Tree of Life. The RAMH AILLE , révülés, spiritual travel, could begin at this point.

The following lines come from a poet of the Middle Ages, demonstrating clearly this altered state:

"Colorful salmon leap from the white sea's womb
yes, they are calves, brown sheep that you behold,
Meek, they don't kill one another
Even though a horseherd shows himself
on Mell's blooming meadow,
over which many Taltos-horses gallop,
but you cannot see these"

As I mentioned before, in the Celtic Upper World, in Heaven (NEAMH, menny) God lives, who was called DUINN (see the Székely TEN, Etruscan TIN). In one of the oldest Celtic-Brit legends, he was called TEEGERNONOS, his Majesty the King,[58] and maybe even TE(N)GRI (?). The etymology of this name is supposedly TE(N), or TI(N) ~ DU-INE person + GER great, mighty, gar + NON- ~ NEAMH Heaven (Menny in Hungarian), 'A Heavenly mighty person'(?). He himself is the "light" (világ, fény in Hungarian) called BEL. His holiday is BELTENE, the "fire of light', the light from Heaven, the Lord of Heaven, the world beyond our human world. His symbol is the TURUL-bird, the griffin, the dragon. His wife is Mother Earth, called ANU (see Hungarian Anya, Eneh, Etruscan UNI), whom her Magyar-Celtic-Etruscan sons symbolise as a doe with antlers. She is the "mother" of humans, the beloved Lady, Ancient Mother of this earthly domain.

The Celtic Lower World was the world of their ancestors. There, on the lower branches of the Tree of Life - which was its lower top - (in some stories it is the base of the tree) sat the King of the world of the ancestors, their guardian, a wise and secretive figure, who was always represented in a Turkish, or Buddha-like sitting posture, with antlers on his head. He is the Green Man,[59] who is accompanied by a pack of white dogs with red ear-tips and, sometimes, he even breaks into the world of humans. He is the protector of wanderers and the guardian of the wisdom of the ancients. He permits the access to ancient wisdom. He is probably the most ancient being in the World. Because of his great age, nobody can tell where he came from or when he was born. In Celtic times, he appeared as a Deer-God. Some call him "Cernunnos" even though this name is none other than a scientific assumption (invention), which is based upon a partly transcribed script.[60] The figure of the Deer God's image carved into stone was inherited from Gaul, from the Roman era and, today, it is kept in the Museé de Cluny in France. The inscription reads: ERNUNNOS. This was changed by the diligent scientists to Cernunnos (because they missed the initial 'K' sound when they saw the antlers). [This is the word the brave scientists "doctored" after they saw the antlers, because, in their "judgment." a letter 'k' was needed, but missing from the beginning of the word]. This is one way of writing history. Following this the more ambitious linguists promptly began to etymologize this word and suggested that "Cer" was probably the same as the Indoeuropean root-word "ker", meaning "to grow"; so Cernunnos is the God, who may be connected with the forces of growth, which appear in the form of antlers on his head.[61] So one falsification was not enough (adding a letter "C" to the beginning of the name); the Indo-Germanic linguists invented along with it a whole series of (children's) stories. This is the objective historical writing which is so admired by the Hungarian Finno-Ugrists and which they follow blindly.

The Gallic ERNUNNOS is identical to the Breton AROÚN and the Welsh ARAWN, the King of the Otherworld, who guards the cauldron of rebirth. The Irish call him UR-DUINE "Green Man'. When we hear the Irish name URDUINE we probably don't err, if we think of the Magyar word URDUNG (= devil, which was declared as "origin unknown").

In the center of the Celtic Lower World was the Well of Knowledge (SEG AIS = well Welsh: OES, Irish: AOIS = ancestor, Hungarian: ŐS and GAOIS = knowledge, Hungarian: okosság), which was protected by Ernunnos, the Green Man. Even though the knowledge of the ancients is immeasurable, it still fits into a nutshell - states the Irish tradition. The Well of Knowledge of the ancients springs forth from the Lower World, the knowledge of those ancients who stood at the cradle of the Irish people.[62] Behind the Green Man always stands the figure of the great Ancient Mother ANU - the Great Madonna of Light - a mighty being "carved of living stone", who gives power. From the well, seven Rivers of Life spring forth. These flow in the Lower World and broaden as rainbows into the Upper World, and then continue, unchanging, into the starry sky. In the rainbow rivers [reside] the totem animals (the helpers of the Táltos), [i. e.] the spirits of the ancients[].

Let us familiarise ourselves with these Celtic totem animals:

Celtic: AG or SAILETHEACH = deer (Ir: SAIL = branch SAIL-ET-EACH, Hu: ágas). Fionn, a hero, whose name means white, shiny (fehér, fényes) had a wife in the otherworld, called SABHA (?> SÁBH to cut, szab, vág = to cut --> SÁIBLE, SZABLYA = saber). She always appeared before her husband in the form of a deer. The importance of the deer becomes even more pronounced when we take into consideration that, in the Celtic languages, it has more than ten names and it is always a "lead-animal" on the road to the Otherworld. It was also the deer that directed the "home occupation". Dames, an English historian - who wrote lengthy studies about Avebury and Silbury's Stone Age monuments in Southern England - proved that, just like the Sumerians two-thousand years earlier, the inhabitants of Southern England also considered the deer[63] to be the Mother Goddess, around 2,000 B.C. - and just like the Hungarians too!

Silbury Hill is the highest monument erected by the people of the European New Stone Age. It is a giant kurgan, dedicated to the Mother Goddess, and an antler was unearthed from its center. In the town of Abbots Bromley, in the County of Staffordshire this deer-myth is still alive. Thousands of tourists are drawn here on September 4 to see the "dance of the deer" which men dance with deer-antlers on their heads. This dance is a prayer to the Great Old Mother and, in reality, it is a fertility dance, and it commemorates the ancestors at the same time. Even though the Christian Church forbade this practice and threatened excommunication, this ancient Celtic tradition still survived.

In the ancient part of the city of Zürich, archeologists unearthed a Celtic gold plate which shows a Deer surrounded by the Sun, Stars and the Moon. Deer-representations can be followed from England to Hungary, on belt-buckles, vases and pottery. We cannot exclude the possibility - says the Lexicon dealing with Celtic mythology - that the "stiff" deer representations of the late Celtic times in Hungary are the fore-runners of the well known deer-motifs of Hungarian folk art.[64]

LOTH (lóh) or EACH (ax) are in Hungarian ló, kasza. LÓ, KASZA. Horses had a central role in Celtic mythology. In one Celtic legend, the "white horse" knows the road to the Otherworld and is "a reliable guide." The Celts sacrificed a white horse to God. They skinned the sacrificed horse and hung the skin onto a tall pole, symbolizing that it ascended to God. We find horses in all aspects of Celtic life, from every-day chores to the wars and horse-burials. To harm a horse intentionally, or to kill it, brought the most horrendous punishment upon the perpetrator.

SEABHAC = falcon, solyom in Hungarian (literally "the whistling, whizzing"). The high flying falcon is the symbol of God. A falcon decorated the helmets of the Celtic warriors - this can be seen in the Celtic find of Csomaköz, Hungary - because it was the symbol of Hadúr, the Lord of Battle who helped in battles. The falcon (God himself) told the Druid, Fintan, the history of the world from the beginning of beginnings.

IOLAR (pron. ílér) sas (ülü) = eagle. King Arthur's discussion with the eagle is well known. In reality, the eagle is his nephew, Ewilod, who tells him about the Otherworld. This discussion unwittingly reminds us of the discourse between the Sumerian hero Gilgamesh and Enkidu. Furthermore, in another legend, the eagle of Cogwry knows the road to Mabon the (Son-) God. Maelduin became acquainted with an eagle, which, after bathing in the water of a lake became young again.

MACHA is a sow (MUC = piglet). The 10th century Cormac Glossary Kerid'wen connects the sow with the goddess of "the cauldron of wisdom." According to the book about the settling of Ireland, she was the fourth ANU, and wife of Nemed. She had to participate in a horse race and died as a consequence. Before she died, she gave birth to twins. She is buried in the Macha kurgan of Emain. In the Protestant church of Armagh (AR MACHA) there is a statue - which is hard to date - of a woman with large breasts, encircled with light, positioned next to the Sungod. She is dressed as a warrior and clearly has horse-ears. Since times immemorial, the locals have called her Macha/Emse. One of the manifestations of MACHA - EM(E)SE, the great Mother Goddess, is the trinity of sacral Kingship, battle and fertility.[65]

BRIONN-FHIONN is the 'grayling', a fish related to the trout. It represents wisdom and the gathering of knowledge, since it constantly swallows the nut-shell which stores the ancient wisdom. It lives in the lake on the shore of which the nine nut-trees of Knowledge grow. Minstrel Fionn MacCumhail gained all his knowledge by eating this fish in a feast that was prepared by Fintan for the druids.

DRUID-DUBH is a blackbird, which is also called the bird of the Goddess RIGAN-TONA. Her song makes the people become intoxicated and fall asleep. It was she who sang on the island of Gwales too, where Bran (see below) and his seven companions spent 72 years in this altered state; during this time they did not grow older and did not realize the passing of time. It is in this manner that the blackbird can pass on the deep secrets of the Otherworld to her listeners and bring messages from there when she begins her magic song at sunset.

CARÓGG (Irish) and BRAN (Welsh) (FRAO in Breton) is a crow that foretells the future and brings bad luck. One of the greatest heroes of the Celtic "Gods" was Bran, who died a hero's death in a battle. In his legend, we can read that, when he was mortally wounded, he revealed to his companions the secret of his "divine" origin and asked them to cut off his head and bury him in London, (in front of Luan-Dún Lugh "God's homestead") in the kurgan called White Hill (today the Tower of London stands on this site), so that he might guard London and protect it for eternity from any outside harm. There is a legend that, if the crows (Bran) leave the Tower, the British Empire will collapse. Today, in London, opposite the Tower, a battleship symbolically guards the British-(Celtic) capital. The horn of Bran is one of the holiest relics of the British Celts.

CÚ (dog, kutya in Hungarian) and AB ACH (eb in Hungarian). CRUA-CHÚ the red dog (CRÓ blood CRUA red) is the guardian of the Otherworld. The word for dog, CU (kutya), is part of the name of the Celtic hero CUCHULAINN (= "Culainn's" Dog). The story relates that Setanta, when he was still a child, killed (?) the guard-dog of Culainn, the smith (who was a Táltos!). The deed was committed in a very unusual way, because Setanta killed the dog by kicking his ball into the open mouth of the dog. At this point he took over the role of the dog and changed his name, thus his grown-up name became Cú-Culainn, in other words the Dog of Culainn. There, obviously, the child Setanta "becomes one" with the Dog (the totem animal of the clan) so that he might become a man and so that the strength of the dog might protect and help him (- initiation). The monk in the Middle Ages, who recorded the legend (copied it or transcribed it), did not understand the meaning of the ancient legend - since idealism was never the strength of the Roman Christian Church.

As we can see, there are many Celtic legends still alive in the British Isles. The legend of Saint Columba is also based upon an ancient Celtic motif. The saintly missionary wanted to build a church on the island of Iona but everything he built during the day collapsed by night. One day Saint Columba saw a "biast" on the shore. This was a being, half woman and half fish, which, when it came ashore and shook its scales, caused the entire island of Iona to tremble. It gave out a sound at the same time, which was like the clinking of pottery-pieces. The monk then asked the extraordinary being if she caused the crumbling of the church-walls. The "biast" of course answered yes but, at the same time, she taught Columba what he should do. The antidote was very simple. It was known from the Great Wall of China to the Castle of Déva in the Carpathian Basin and the full length and breadth of the Scythian lands: he had to ask the builders the next day, who was willing to volunteer to be walled in alive.[66]

The parallels between the Hungarian and Celtic legends and their common motifs appear in an exemplary manner in the Atilla-Arthur legends (> the Sword of God). I will not deal with this separately here. I will mention as a point of interest that the British artist E. Burne-Jones, when painting the picture of the death of King Arthur, placed the Hungarian Holy Crown next to the Celtic Arthur's bed as he lay dead (instead of Arthur's possession, the Holy Grail). The pictures title is: "The Last Sleep of Arthur in Avalon".[67] Atilla and Arthur were contemporaries.


E. Burne Jones: The Last Sleep of Arthur in Avalon. From the book by Michael Parker: King Arthur. Notice the Hungarian Holy Crown at the bottom of the painting [The image of the painting in the book appears to have been inadvertently left-right reversed. The correct detail is shown below.]


A new chapter in the Celtic legends is the theme of the so called Home-Occupation. The Irish legends talk of several such occupations coming from the East. The later Christian chroniclers gave biblical ancestors to the main characters of these occupations and thus replaced the memories of the ancestors with a new spiritual heritage. Thus the "Lebor Gabála Erenn" was born, the occupation of Ireland. Unreliable scribes who copied the text made the story even more colorful and so the original meaning was made hazy[68] - and it is clear that the same happened with the Magyar ancient Gesta. The only question that remains is whether these "interferences" were directed and planned or not. Don't look for malevolence where stupidity is a sufficient explanation - states one of Murphy's laws. So lets not look further...

The notion of Homeland Occupation is maintained only by the Hungarian and the Irish, and the formation of the homeland in both the Magyar and Irish Chronicles is mentioned as "Home-Occupation" (Gabála). In Irish, GABH means the same as the Hungarian kap, megkap, megkaparint, elfog, elfoglal, in English to take, get, capture.

The Magyar chronicles usually talk about two conquests; the Képes Krónika also mentions the settling of the Celts. The Magyar ancient Gesta, which survived in a Turkish translation called the Tárih-i Üngürüsz, mentions five Conquests - or establishments of a homeland. It emphasizes in each of these Conquests, that the newcomers found ancestors in the Carpathian Basin who spoke the same language as the conquerors. This image is characteristic of the Celtic Conquests also.

Three Irish legends preserve the memory of these occupations: in one we learn of the occupation of the people of Mil, in the second we learn about the story of Tuan, and in the third Fintan tells the real history of Ireland.

The conquest of the Miles

The people of the leader MIL are called by historians the Miles, who completed the last conquest (Gabala, megkapás, megkaparintás in Hungarian). Mil set off from Iberia with 36 ships to try to conquer Ireland. According to the chronicle of Isidor of Seville, (6th century A.D.), Ireland's Latin name "Hibernia" originated from Iberia's name. The Lexicon of Celtic Mythology writes the following about the leader, Mil: "Mil, son of Bile, whose full name is Mil Espaine (Spanish soldier), and in other writings his "real" name is GALAM, calls his people the clan of BREOGAIN (trout). The explanation of this name as Spanish soldier is only a scribal reasoning. The base of this is the similarity of the names Mil and the Latin "miles" and the constant need to explain on the part of the monks who wrote the chronicles, which also caused a lot of damage and mis-explanations in the Magyar chronicles.

According to the Book of the Conquest, Mil was the father of seven sons, and later of eight sons. The people of Mil consisted of the alliance of seven clans and he became the head of this alliance. At the time of his election he was lifted up on a shield according to Celtic custom. We have no information about the names of the leaders of these clans but the Chronicle of Conquest saved the names of their wives for posterity: Tea, Fial, Fás, Liben, Ódba, Scota [and] Scéne. The Miles' Druid, Amairgin, enumerates in his poem the names of the women and also the names of the leaders. According to this, Tea was the wife of Éremón, the equestrian; Fial, the warrior lady, was married to Luigaid; Fás was married to Unmac Uicce; Scéne herself was married to Amairgin; Liben to Duke Fuad; Odba's husband is not mentioned. Scota was the widow because she was Mil's wife. Scota later moved to Scotland. The chroniclers, the "knowledgeable compilers" stated that the name Scota is derived from the name of the Scythians, who lived on the northern shore of the Black Sea.[69] Well, it is possible that these "knowledgeable compilers" (?) did not err this time. Many geographic names bear the names of the wives of these leaders all over Ireland. (Scota took her name to Scotland).

Mil in reality had two sons: Éber and Éremón. According to the researchers of the chronicles, these names were formed with the same alliterative method (the same sound appears at the beginning of two words which follow one another, or sometimes they appear and are repeated or harmonize within the word) as it can be found in the stories of "conquests" in other regions of the world, as the names of brothers (see Ed and Edömén, or Hunor-Magor in Magyar origin sagas.[70])

Mil did not live to see the Conquest completed - like the Magyar leader Álmos [just as the magyar Álmos did not (live to see the Conquest completed)] - this was accomplished by his sons. Battles in connection with the Conquest are not mentioned in the Chronicle. Tuatha Dé Dannan (the clan of the Goddess Danu) attempted to resist with magic (the Druids) and successfully prevented the landing of the Miles. So the attackers resorted to a trick; they feigned retreat behind the ninth wave, where the magic of the Druid Tuatha Dé Dannan could not reach them, and they landed unexpectedly in two different spots in the North and the South and, in the battle of Tailtiu, the people of the Mother Goddess were defeated. Following this, the people of Tuatha De Dan-nan "retreated into the SIDHS (burial mounds)." The brothers Éber and Éremón divided Ireland with brotherly justness into two parts, into the northern and southern part.[71] There was no fratricide.

The story of Tuan MacCarill (or Cairell) MacMuredach

TUAN, was the central hero, son of Cairell. Tuan, the old warrior, who was a nephew of Partholon, tells the story of Saint-Finnian (who lived around 579 A.D.). According to legend, Tuan was the oldest person in Ireland, because he had survived all five Conquests in the form of different animals. Always, when some new "people" arrived on the Irish Isle, Tuan assumed the image of a different animal. Before the transformation, Tuan always retreated into his house in the region of Cuige Ulaidh - the Duke Oled's (Ulster) province, "Előd-hon" in Hungarian. Tuan arrived in Ireland with Partholon and was the son of Partholon's brother. Partholon was supposedly born with one eye and, because of this, in his ancestral land (Sicily or somewhere in the land of the Greeks), he could not become King. For this reason, he set sail with his people to search for a new home. Tuan narrates the story of the first Conquest in the following way: 312 years after the Flood, Partholon, who was the son of Sera, started out with 24 couples. After they had settled, their clan quickly grew to 5,000 people. After a lost battle at the hands of the Fomorians, which was followed by tremendous destruction and butchery, all of them died, with one exception. Only Tuan survived. After this, Ireland remained "empty" for 22 years.

It was then that the people of Nemed arrived. NEMED was the son of Argoman. His name means holy, noble.[72] Nemed's people wandered about at the beginning for a year and a half, in the Caspian Sea, then, after many hardships, they arrived in Ireland with 34 boats and 30 men in each boat. At the arrival of Nemed, Tuan realized, in his dream, that he had turned into a deer. In the form of a deer, he awaited the arrival of Nemed's people. After these brave warriors from the East had landed - according to Tuans poem:

These men from the East set off for a hunt with their lances which never missed their target[73] but, when the "sons" of Nemed started to chase after the deer (Tuan), he grew mighty antlers and his heart was rejuvenated too. So Nemed's sons could not kill the Magic Deer. He, on the other hand, led them to the place of their settlement (occupation).

The Magic Deer motif of the Magyars appears in this Irish legend. Soon after they settled, under the leadership of the Magic Deer, the people of Nemed increased their number to 4030 couples. Nemed defeated the Fomorians in three battles and killed two of their kings. They cultivated seventeen meadows and enriched Ireland with four fish-ponds; in addition, they also built two royal strongholds. When all this was completed, Nemed became ill and soon died. The people were left without a leader and the Fomorians defeated them and imposed enormous taxes. They had to give them two-thirds of their grain and milk harvest. For this reason, Nemed's sons revolted but they were defeated and butchered and only a boat-full of people escaped. The descendants of these refugees, like the Fir Bolg and the later Tuatha Dé Dannan people, returned to recapture their rightful possession, as descendants of Nemed (cf. the return of the Magyars to reclaim their homeland).

Nemed's wife was Macha the Em(e)se, who - even though she was expecting - was forced by the enemy to participate in a horse race, which caused her death. Before her death she gave birth to two boys (cf. Hunor and Magor of the Magyars). From the womb of "Eme(e)se" the two sons of Nemed were born, who later became the rulers of the two peoples known as the descendants of Nemed. The earlier descendants of Nemed who had fled, now returned and arrived as the bellicose Fir Bolg (the Hunor branch) and as the Táltos Tuatha Dé Dannan (Magor branch) to reoccupy their homeland with the power of arms.

After the destruction of Nemed's people Tuan again retreated into his cave/house to hide from the "wolves". One day he realised that his body had changed again and that he was rejuvenated. He knew that the descendants of Nemed had returned. Tuan changed into a boar this time. The Fir Bolg arrived, men in trousers like "balloons, or sacks." They lived in Ireland as long as it was livable. The five sons of Delgas, the leaders (princes) of the Fir Bolg people, divided the Irish isle among themselves (the five divisions still remain today) and introduced the Kingship as a new form of government. (CEANN = fejedelem or kán, = prince, khan). The name of their first King, according to the Chronicle, was Eochaid macErc who was well suited for this honor. The name Fir Bolg, according to some linguists, was derived from a word meaning wide pants, wide trousers. Others believe the meaning, which was described by O'Flaherty, in the 17th century, may be connected with the Celts, who came over from Belgium, around 100 B.C.[74] The name Belgium was derived from the name of the Bolg clan.

The people of Tuatha Dé Dannan arrived with the fourth wave of conquest, under the rule of the Fir Bolg people. The people of the Goddess Danu/Anu completed the penultimate mythical conquest of Ireland, which is recorded in the Book of the Conquest of Ireland.[75] The people of the TUATHA clan Dé divine DANA- AN, the Good-mother - according to legend - arrived from a totally unknown place to the Irish Island and

"nobody knows their origin, not even the scholars, but presumably they arrived from the Sky, because they were so intelligent, so wise and knew so much" - writes the chronicler.

Tuan assumed the form of the falcon, because the Tuatha Dé Dannan were the people of the Falcon (God). The clan of the Good-Mother took over the power on the island from the hands of the Fir Bolg people and introduced the "Táltos-Kingship". The Táltos-King, elected by the people, could occupy his throne, only if he was physically and spiritually adequate for his role. He had to go through different trials (for electing the King).[76] The people of Tuatha Dé Dannan were the creators of Druidism (Táltos priesthood). The Druids (Torda) had four very important relics: the stone of Fái, Lugh's spear that cannot miss the target, Nuadu's frightful sword and Daghdha's cauldron that was eternally full. The people of the Good-Mother/Mother Goddess gave us all the "modern" deities of Celtic mythology - Dagda, the Good God; Goibniu, the smith; Ogma, the Sky-god; Lug, the youth-God; Birgit, the Goddess of Dawn; Macha, the Emse; Morrigan, the Goddess of healing wells (borvizek in Hungarian); the counterpart of the god Borvo, etc. The people of Fir Bolg did not easily abdicate their role of leadership and a battle with weapons ensued between the two brotherly peoples. The Battle of Mag Tuired (of the "dry-meadow") was lost by the Fir Bolg people even though they succeeded in cutting off the right arm of Nuadu, who was a Tuatha Dé Dannan King. Later the King's smiths replaced it with an arm made of silver (since he could not have remained king without the right arm). The griffin and ivy motifs arrived in the British Isles with this clan of Gods.

The fifth Conquest was the conquest of the people of Mil. During this age, Tuan lived in the image of a trout (pér) or salmon BREOGAIN clan). Tuan assumed the form of a man again when Saint Patrick (Naomh = Nemes Padraig) brought in the Faith to Ireland.

The story of Fintan

The third saga that talks about the Irish conquests is connected with the story of Fintan. The title of the chapter is: "The story of the division of Tara's house." The Great King Di-armauid MacCerball wanted to divide the country between his subjects but nobody in his household knew how to divide it. For this reason, the King searched for the oldest man in his kingdom, Fintan MacBóchra, who, in the legend, was one of Noahs grandchildren, to narrate the "true story" of Ireland. This is written in The Yellow Book of Lencan. Fintan remembered seven conquests.

First, he tells about the first division of Ireland. Ui Neill called a meeting (szer in Hungarian) at Magh Bregh ("Pusztamező"). Here, the assembled people agreed that the location of Tara, the capital city, was not advantageous, even though it lay on a flatland and one could see from here in seven directions, but there was not even one castle, worthy of entertaining all the men and women of Ireland, every three years.

The Chronicler writes about the division of Ireland on that certain "dry meadow". (Pusztaszer in Hungarian, where the members of the Magyar Conquest held their first meeting in Hungary.) They assigned land to every leader (BRIOD) and they assigned to every county a mountain-chain (BARR, Hu: bérc), one ridge (TULAN, Hu: dűlő), a larger river (AUB), a mountain-pass (BRIO see Hu: VER-ecke, BER-eck), a grassy pasture (FÉARACH - Hu: füves) and a seashore (PORT, Hu: part). They decided upon the location of TARA, the royal seat. The Hill of UISNECH became the sacred place of Ireland, the center of the Druids. In Uisnech they assigned a well to everyone, a FORRACH (Hu: forrás)."This was a wise division," reported the Chronicler in Fintans words. They succeeded in dividing Ireland into five parts with the border lines following the roads.[77] The mountaintop of every region pointed to Uisnech, where they even cut every stone into five parts.

Then Fintan tells the memories of the Conquests.

According to one variation the first Conquest was led by Lady Cessair, who was the daughter of Noahs son, Bith (her name is not mentioned in the Bible). Cessair, after a seven year journey, arrived with her folk on the Irish Island. Cessair's husband was Fintan himself, who had the title of BREHON (Hu: Bíró). Bearing this title, he lived through many governments of Ireland until the arrival of Patrick and, as chief magistrate, he made decisions about everybody's land.[78] Lady Cessair and Fintan had a son named ILLAN. The first conquest has another variation also, according to which the leader, Cessair, was a man, who came from the East. His entourage consisted of his wife, the daughter of Bith, their 50 daughters and another three men. One day, there was a great flood and only Fintan was able to escape, in such a manner, that: "he lived through the flood with Tul Tuinde, under the water."

Later, he enumerates the already mentioned conquests, and he repeats one of them - FIR BOLG's conquest - in order to obtain the magical number seven.

After this, Fintan also relates an origin saga, namely: after the building of Nimrod's tower and the confusion of languages, they went to Egypt upon the invitation of the Pharaoh. According to Fintans story, after they left Egypt, the Celts wandered toward the North and back to the Caucasus, and later, embarking upon ships, they crossed the sea "which is called the Caspian Sea and arrived in Scythia and India", and later they moved to the Malus maeotis (> Palus maeotis, in Hungarian: meotiszi mocsár, öböl = the Marsh of Meotis).

If we take into account the sections of the Conquest, we can state that the Celtic "ancient home" may have been on the southern slopes of the Caucasus. Before their move to Egypt, one (ancient) Celtic clan separated from them and, under the leadership of Lady Cessair, left the Caucasus and settled in the Irish Island.

After their exodus from Egypt, the ancient Celts moved back to the region of their "ancestral" home in the Caucasus. They did not continue their route through the mountains, but embarked upon ships, crossed the Caspian Sea and settled on its eastern shore. Could this last migration be the result of a sudden enemy attack? One group of the Celts (a tribe) probably broke off here too and settled in Anatolia. Partholon's people started their migration from here "the land of the Greeks" to occupy a new homeland. Could a lost battle again be the cause of their continued wandering, maybe the fall of Troy?

The Celts, who were settled on the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea (the ones who reached Scythia and India), after a while, started out again and found a home in the Meotis Marsh. From here, the noble Nemed ("nemes" in Hungarian), after many adventures, settled his folk in Ireland. Let us not forget that Nemed's clan was the clan of the "Deer". After the unexpected death of Nemed, the remainder of his people - who survived the destruction of the Fomorians - fled on a ship (to Europe?) Here in the new home, Nemed's posthumus sons were elected by the people as their princes. So they, Nemed's and Em(e)se's sons became the founders of two royal houses which descended from Nemed. On one side, the Fir Bolg princes ruled and, on the other, the Tuatha Dé Dannan princes.

According to some historians, the people called Fir Bolg arrived from Belgium around 100 B.C. They were followed by Tuatha Dé Dannan and, only after these, did Mil's sons arrive from Iberia. As is well-known, it was in 100 B.C. that Rome's wars of conquest began and, by 45 B.C., the Romans had reached the southern-most part of Iberia. It was around this time that Mil's Celts migrated to Ireland. If the historians time-table is correct, concerning the Irish conquests, then it hardly took 100(-150) years to complete the last three conquests.: Fir Bolg - Tuatha Dé Dannan - and the sons of Mil.

According to the Book of Conquests, the first (or second) occupiers, or rather the people of Partholon, arrived 312 years after the Flood. (There was probably a mighty flood (in which the people of Cessair perished). Partholons people lived on the island until they multiplied from 24 couples to 5000 people (about 800 years). After the people suffered destruction and annihilation, 22 years passed before the island became "inhabited" again, when the noble Nemed arrived with his people. Nemed arrived in Ireland with 34 ships and 30 men on each ship and his people multiplied to 4030 couples. After Nemed's death and the ensuing destruction by the Fomorians, the remaining people fled and the island again became "empty" (but no longer than 150-200 years, since the Fir Bolg and Tuatha Dé Dannan peoples, as descendants of Nemed, took back their ancestral lands from the Fomorians). The result of this calculation establishes that Partholon arrived in Ireland around 1250 B.C. According to the chronicle, a huge flood hit the Irish Island around 1500 B.C., which destroyed Cessair's settlers. We do not know of such a natural catastrophe, but we do know of changes in the climate. Cessair's people arrived sometime between 2000 and 1500 B.C. from an unknown eastern territory and settled on the Irish island. It is at this time that Stonehenge was built in Britain. After Cessair's people perished, the hitherto unknown "Fomorians" ruled the region. Partholons people came from "the land of the Greeks" to Ireland, probably around 1250 B.C. They probably defeated the Fomorians and took possession of the Island. Then, in the second half of the second millennium B.C., both Ireland and Hungary came under "Mycenean" influence at the same time, even though this influence is not recognisable in other parts of Europe.[79] Probably they are a part of those Trojan refugees which are mentioned in chronicles all over Europe. The other, larger part of these refugees took refuge in Pannonia (> Képes krónika).<[80] Here in the Carpathian or Danube Basin developed the cult of DANU, the Mother Goddess, which later appeared in Ireland too. Danu is the name-giver of the river Duna (Danube), the "holy" river of the Druids.

Returning to the Irish Conquest, shortly after the demise of Partholon's people, new conquerors arrived around 500 B.C. under the leadership of Nemed from somewhere in the Caucasus region, or the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea (> Cimmerians? <=> the Welsh name for Wales is CYMRU). According to the Irish chronicles, Partholon and Nemed were Magogs sons. Nemed built a strong country, but his "empire" was short-lived, because it was too dependent upon one person, the emperor, and, with his sudden death, it fell apart. To flee the butchery, Nemed's people escaped on a boat but returned. (Like Fir Bolg, or Tuatha Dé Dannan, he "could not take Danu, the Ancient Mother, with him' and he had to leave her in Annún, or Bannún, in the Motherland, or in "The Land of the Lady" - in other words, in Pannonia, the Country of the "Boldogasszony".[81]). The re-conquest must have taken place no later than 150-200 years (4-5 generations) after Nemed's death and not later, because both "peoples" (the "Wide-trousered" and the "Clan of God") still have a living memory of being the descendants of Nemed when they arrived in Ireland and demanded the return of, or took by armed force [demanded, or rather, retook by force of arms], the land of their ancestors. The return of the "Avars" and the Magyars is also a homecoming to Atilla's land. The Avars are simply called Huns by the historian, Anonymus.

Historians date the home (re)occupation of Ireland by the descendants of Nemed, the Fir Bolg and Tuatha Dé Dannan, around 100 B.C. and consider the Fir Bolg to be the settlers who came from Belgium. We don't know anything of the origin of the Tuatha Dé Dannan. It may be that the people of Danu/Anu, the Mother-Goddess, started out from the Hungarian homeland, painfully leaving behind the Ancient Mother (see above). But [they made sure,] Danu's name lived on in their rivers called DON (Ireland, Scotland, England or France). They were the "people of the Druids" and the creators of the griffin-tendril designs. They were the wise ones, who had such immense knowledge that "they came right from the Heavens" to the Irish Island, who looked for the highest degree of knowledge, wisdom, soothsaying and literature, which they called EICSE (ész) and achieved it there. This wave of conquest may be the decisive factor in the evolution of the Irish language. We conclude the same about the people of the griffin-tendril motif, in regard to the Magyar language, who gave a name to everything in the Carpathian Basin before Árpád led the "Magyar homecoming." They determined the geographic names (mountains and waters) and the names of settlements, which were mostly in Magyar. They created the shamanistic Druidism and the griffin-tendril type of art, which is the basis of today's folk art.[82]

The sons of Mil assimilated into this already existing Irish character. Álmos and his sons assimilated into the already-existing Magyar world in the Carpathian Basin, since the Magyar language was already there before them, and also survived among the Székely (Sicul) people of Scythian/Saka-Hun origin.

This essay was an attempt to compare and demonstrate the parallels that can be found between the Irish and Hungarian history, according to ancient oral traditions, and the accounts written in the Chronicles.

Nobody should be surprised if, reading this, it seems as if all this is familiar, as if they were reading Magyar sagas or the history of the Magyar conquest. Both the Celts and the Magyars are the heirs of the same common Turanian (Scythian) spiritual heritage. Of course, like every comparison, this too may be "limping." Its weak points may be because it gives the appearance that I attempt to place happenings side-by side, which are the stories of two completely different ages. I compared and tried to find the parallels not the real (probable) history of two peoples - which, let us confess, nobody knows - but the memories of two peoples, the Irish and the Hungarian people, as they are present in living memories and the Chronicles.


Celtic kurgan with the "kunbaba"


The main motif of the Irish folk stories is the world of the fairies, who live in a separate Fairyland, called T'YEER-NA-N-OGE, the Land/Country of Youth. They call it such because here neither aging nor death exists. The hero of the story can come to this wonderful land, only with the help of an enchanted horse (Táltosló in Hungarian). This horse, at the beginning of the story, is of course a shaggy unkempt, uncared for pony, which, through the loving care of the hero (prince), changes into a beautiful Táltosparipa, which can talk, and fly, even over the highest mountains, and knows the way to the Land of the Fairies. He also knows all the obstacles that are placed before the hero of the story and also their solution, for which he has the necessary weapons and tricks and he prepares the prince for these just in time."Hold on to my mane my little master" - says the horse to the hero of the story, before he flies up to the highest heavens. The Land of the Fairies is usually on an island, somewhere in the middle of a sea or a big lake, and its entrance is guarded by two fire-breathing dragons or snakes or two columns of fire. However, obviously with the help of the táltos-horse, the prince of the story is able to enter the Land of the Fairies. The main occupation of the fairies is care-free gaiety and eternal dance. They dance to shreds a pair of sandals each night in their "wild" dance and, for this reason Leipreachán, the Fairy shoemaker, works day and night and constantly prepares new sandals. If they show up in the world of the humans, they hold their nightly parties - which they have to end before the cock crows, if they don't want to turn into monuments of stone - in ruined castles where they entice the humans who walk in the vicinity to come in. There were also "bad" fairies, who stole children, or exchanged them, or sometimes caused the milk to dry up in the cows, similar to the "beautiful" or "fancy" women of the Székely (Sicul) folk stories.

Other figures of the Irish folk-stories were the giants. They built castles on top of high mountains; they built the roads leading up to them with the help of the "changed [transformed] roosters" and their devil servants. It is accepted, says Yeats, that the old Irish emperors, heroes and gods turn into giants in folk-stories, and the Goddesses and princesses appear as fairies. In the stories the wives, sisters and daughters of the giants are always fairies. The giants are brave with immense strength, the fairies are beautiful and smart and their song is the world's most beautiful music.[83]

Sándor Timaru-Kast


"An Gúm": Foclóir Póca English-Irish . Irish-English Dictionary. Dublin, 1993.

Berenik, Anna: A félremagyarázott Anonymus., L Magurától Lebediáig. 1993.

Brown, D. - Anker, C.: Die Kelten - Europas Volk der Eisenzeit 1995, Time Life.

Botheroyd, Sylvia - Paul, E: Lexikon der keltischen Mythologie. München, 1999.

Csomor, Lajos: Őfelsége, a Magyar Szent Korona. Székesfehérvár, 1996.

Cunlif, b.: Illustrierte Vor- iwá Frühgeschichte Europas. Frankfurt, 1996.

Ellis, P. B.: Die Druiden. München, 1996.

Förster, O. - Spielvogel, G. - Nägele, G.: Auf der Swcfee nacfc dem Gold der Kelten München, 2002.

Garam, Éva - Kiss, Attila: Népvándorlás kori aranykincsek a Magyar Nemzeti Múzeumban.. 1992.

Goodwin, Edmund: First Lessons in Manx. Douglas, Isle of Man, 1987.

Jones, W. J.: Welsh with Easy. Denbigh, Wales/UK.

Kinder, H. - Hilgemann, W.: Atlas zur Weltgeschichte. Köln, 1987.

Kluge, F.: Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache. Berlin, 1999.

MacCana, P.: Kelta mitológia. Budapest, 1993.

Makkay, János: Indul a magyar Attila földjére. Budapest, 1996.

Matthews, Caitlin: Kelta hagyományok. Budapest, 2000.

Matthews, Caitlin & John: Das große Handbuch der keltischen Weisheit München, 1999.

Matthews, John: Keltischer Schamanismus. München, 1998.

Parker, Michael: King Arthur (Pitkin guides). Norwich, 1995/2004.

Pokorny, J.: Altirische Gramatik. Berlin, 1969.

Timaru-Kast, Sándor: Kelta magyarok, magyar kelták. Budapest, 1999.

Tschirner, Susanne: Irland. Köln, 2000.

Yeats, W. B.: Irish Fairy And Folk Tales. London, 2004.



1 "He immediately came to like this paradisical land, and ordered them to build a big castle on top of the Szikán-mountain." ('Tárih-i Üngürüsz' or a Magyarok Története). (Tárih-i Üngürüsz; Madzsar Tárihi. Budapest, 1982, Magvető Könyvkiadó. In 1543, at the fall of Székesfehérvár, at the time of the burning of the Kings castle, The History of the Magyars, written in Latin, fell into the hands of the interpreter of Suleiman I, Terdzsuman Mahmud, who translated it into Turkish in the Tárih-i Üngürüsz. Editor)

2 Cf. Ir: BÁIRE - competition > BÁIREOIR competitor.

3 Ir: BARRÓG - Hu: birok, birkózás = wrestling.

4 Cf. Ir: LUBÁN - Hu: labda = ball; IMIR- Hu: mérkőzés = match; Ir: LUTH – Hu: fut, szalad = run.

5 Die Kelten - Europas Volk der Eisenzeit, 1995, p. 104.

6 One meaning of the Irish verb: CEALA-igh: Hu: el-KEL elfogy / KÖLT költekezik, elpazarol; something suddenly dissipates (for example a dream - felfüggeszt or simply a state of rest, in which case it is Hu: fel-KEL/KÖLT)

7 Matthews, Caitlín: Kelta hagyományok (Celtic Traditions), pp. 13-14.

8 Förster, O., Spielvogel, G., Nágele, G.: Aufder Suche nach dem Gold der Kelten, p. 52.

9 Berenik Anna:A félremagyarázott Anomymus. Part I.,: Magurától Lebediáig. p. 62.

10 Ellis P. B.: Die Druiden (The Druids), p. 127.

11 Timaru-Kast Sándor: Kelta magyarok, magyar kelták, p. 23. [>'Die Kelten - Europas Volk der Eisenzeit'].

12 In German "HÜNEN- (archaic) HIUNEN-gráber" - means: HUN-graves (> Kluge, F: Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache, p. 388.). Beginning with the 13th century the word HUNE also means "giant". The concept of HUNNE Hun was born only in the age of Humanism. For further info, see: HU-NENHAFT giant, mighty.

13 Irish TUAIM a burial place (TEM-et-ő in Magyar) another name; Irish SIDH, Welsh SIR - burial mound, in Hungarian sírhalom, tündérdomb.

14 Förster, O., Spielvogel, G., Nágele, G: Aufder Suche nach dem Gold der Kelten, p. 51.

15 The belief originates from here, according to which the Celts are red-haired. Todays Irish population is about 3-4% red-haired. Susanne Tschirner: Irland, p. 19.]. In Brittany or Wales this percent is below 1%. The majority of the Celts' (Irish, Scots, Welsh and Bretons) over 95%, has brown hair. Of this Celtic "sapo" originated the French"sabún" (Magyar szappan) in the early Middle Ages.

16 Timaru-Kast Sándor: Kelta magyarok, magyar kelták, p. 30. (> 'Die Kelten - Europas Volk der Eisenzeit' [A kelták - Európa vaskori népe], pp. 64-65.)

17 Irish BAN married woman, old woman - see BE young, unmarried woman, CAILÍN bride (> Tiirkish GELIN).

18 Mac Cana, R: Kelta mitológia, p. 125.

19 Matthews, Caitlín: Kelta hagyományok, p. 165.

20 Makkay, János: Indul a magyar Attila földjére, p. 199.

21 Garam, Éva - Kiss, Attila: Népvándorlás-kori aranykincsek a Magyar Nemzeti Múzeumban, p. 8.

22 Csomor, Lajos: Őfelsége, a Magyar Szent Korona, p. 157.

23 Kelta/Breton DOUR (big) water - the name Dover, English port-city and the name of the "Dráva" river originate from here too.

24 Timaru-Kast, Sándor: Kelta magyarok, magyar kelták, p. 31-32. [> Atlas zur Weltgeschichte, p. 21.].

25 Timaru-Kast, Sándor: Kelta magyarok, magyar kelták, p. 32.

26 Timaru-Kast, Sándor: Kelta magyarok, magyar kelták, p. 32.

27 Timaru-Kast, Sándor: Kelta magyarok, magyar kelták, p. 32. [Atlas zur Weltgeschichte, p. 15.].

28 Förster, O., Spielvogel, G., Nágele,G.: Auf der Suche nach dem Gold der Kelten, p. 51.

29 Cunliffe, B.: Illustrierte Vor- und Frühgeschichte Europas, p. 11. It is also his opinion that, with the arrival of the Celts and the Scythians in Europe, the "Easternisation" of Europe began. ('Die Kulturen der alten Welt, 2000). Furthermore, the Professor of the reknowned Oxford University considers the Dacians too a Celtic-Scythian mixture. ('Die Kelten', 2000).

30 Förster, O., Spielvogel, G., Nágele, G.: Auf der Suche nach dem Gold der Kelten, pp. 52-53.

31 Förster, O., Spielvogel, G., Nágele, G.: Auf der Suche nach dem Gold der Kelten, p. 55.

32 English”jig” Irish name: PORT (> see PORTA-igh to sink, to dip / PORT in Magyar pert, mart)

33 Timaru-Kast Sándor: Kelta magyarok, magyar kelták, p. 46. 'Die Kelten - Europas Volk der Eisenzeit' (A Kelták - Európa vaskori népe), p, 17.

34 "Aggressiv-imperialistische Länder, so sagt die irische Historikerin Margaret MacCurtain, haben ein Vaterland, jahrhundertelang von fremden Harren besetzte Länder wie Irland dagegen ein Mutterland." (Susanne Tschirner: Irland, p. 20.)

35 In this section, Irish words are written in capital letters, Hungarian words are in italics.

36 see: Turkish METIN, in Magyar méltó, jó, megbecsült = worthy, good, esteemed

37 see: FARAS-barr excess, surplus = FELES-leg (> Irish BARR csúcs)

38 at the same time the Irish NÍ expresses amazement (> NÍ MÉ Magyar csodálkozom) <=> Magyar NE, NA-hát!

39 Further examples: Irish SRA-ith line, series, line, order <> Hu: SOR (line) <> Türkish SIRA line, order.

40 Irish AIS-CHOTU feed-back = Hu: VISSZA-HATÁS (Irish COTHA-igh to have an influence on someone/what).

41 See: Türkish ASI gain <=> Irish US gain, interest, dividend <=> Magyar HASZ-on = gain.

42 See Japanese DA is similarly a form of the verb "to be" and they too use it with a meaning of “is”.

43 Following Julius Pokorny's Altirische Gramatik.

44 AR AIS means the Magyar "VISSZA" (back), more closely: AIS = Magyar HÁT (back of something), the other side: VISSZÁ-ja; AR = RÁ-, -RA/-RE, -ON.

45 Ellis, P. B,: Die Druiden, p. 46.

46 See: Irish CORRAIGH ort - Magyar GYERE, GYERÜNK.

47 Jones, W. J.: Welsh with Ease, p. 1.

48 Caitlin und John Matthews: Das große Handbuch der keltischen Weisheit, p. 10,

49 Timaru-Kast, Sándor: Kelta magyarok, magyar kelták, p. 36. [> Ellis, R B.: Die Druiden, p. 48.]

50 Timaru-Kast, Sándor: Kelta magyarok, magyar kelták, p. 36. [> Ellis, R B.: Die Druiden, 129.]

51 Timaru-Kast, Sándor: Kelta magyarok, magyar kelták, p. 36. [> Ellis, P. B.: Die Druiden, 124.]

52 Timaru-Kast, Sándor: Kelta magyarok, magyar kelták, p. 34. [> Kinder és Hilgemann: Atlas zur Weltgeschichte, p. 113.]

53 Timaru-Kast, Sándor: Kelta magyarok, magyar kelták, p. 36. [> Ellis, P. B.: Die Druiden.]

54 Dagdas other name is Ruadh Rofessa, Rőt Ravasz in Hungarian, the "Sly Red" (Matthews, Caitlin: Kelta hagyományok, p.38.)

55 Timaru-Kast, Sándor: Kelta magyarok, magyar kelták, p. 228. [> Ellis, R B,: Die Druiden, p. 50.]

56 MacCana, R: Kelta mitológia, p. 86.

57 Matthews, J.: Keltischer Schamanismus, p. 72-76. Hungarian translation by Timaru-Kast, English by S. Tomory.

58 Matthews, J.: Keltischer Schamanismus, p. 126.

59 Matthews, J.: Keltischer Schamanismus, p. 127.

60 Matthews, J.: Keltischer Schamanismus, p. 128.

61 Sylvia und Paul F. Botheroyd: Lexikon der keltischen Mythologie, p. 70.

62 Matthews, J.: Keltischer Schamanismus, p. 63.

63 Sylvia and Paul F. Botheroyd: Lexikon der keltischen Mythologie, p, 204.

64 Sylvia and Paul F. Botheroyd: Lexikon der keltischen Mythologie, p. 206.

65 Sylvia and Paul F. Botheroyd: Lexikon der keltischen Mythologie, p. 225-226.

66 Caitlin and John Matthews: Das große Handbuch der keltischen Weisheit, p. 85-86.

67 Pitkin guides: King Arthur, p. 14.

68 Caitlin and John Matthews: Das große Handbuch der keltischen Weisheit, p. 17,

69 Sylvia and Paul F. Botheroyd: Lexikon der keltischen Mythologie, p. 295-296.

70 The Hungarian legend of the Miracle Stag is the origin saga of the Hungarians. Hunor and Magor, the sons

of Nimrod, chased the Miracle Stag to the land of the Alans, where they found the daughters of King Dul

and married them, thus founding the two nations, the Huns and the Magyars. (Editor)

71 Caitlin and John Matthews: Das große Handbuch der keltischen Weisheit, p. 17-26.

72 Sylvia and Paul F. Botheroyd: Lexikon der keltischen Mythologie, p. 318.

73 Caitlin and John Matthews: Das große Handbuch der keltischen Weisheit, p. 57.

74 Sylvia and Paul F. Botheroyd: Lexikon der keltischen Mythologie, p. 160.

75 Sylvia and Paul F. Botheroyd: Lexikon der keltischen Mythologie, p. 413.

76 Timaru-Kast, Sándor: Kelta magyarok, magyar kelták, p. 88.

77 Caitlin and John Matthews: Das große Handbuch der keltischen Weisheit, p. 71.

78 Caitlin and John Matthews: Das große Handbuch der keltischen Weisheit, p. 42.

79 Timaru-Kast, Sándor: Kelta magyarok, magyar kelták, p. 28. [> Kinder/Hilgemann: Atlas zur Weltgeschichte.]

80 Timaru-Kast, Sándor: Kelta magyarok, magyar kelták, pp. 22., 30.

81 Timaru-Kast Sándor: Kelta magyarok, magyar kelták, p. 31.

82 Timaru-Kast Sándor: Kelta magyarok, magyar kelták, pictures.

83 Yeats, W. B.: Irish Fairy And Folk Tales, p. 4.

 * * *

Source: Botos, László, Editor-in-Chief, Selected Studies in Hungarian History, HUN-idea, Budapest, 2008



Ed. note: About the author

My field of research is the Celtic world and, within this, the question of the Celtic-Magyar relationship. I started to work regularly in this field in 1994. I gave my first lecture on this subject, in 1995, at a Conference on Ancient History in Tapolca, at the Zürich Magyar Historical Associations summer-camp. I was offered membership in the fall of that year, and I have been a member of the ZMTE (Zürichi Magyar Történelmi Egyesület) since that time.

1995-1998:1 delivered lectures on ancient history at the meetings of the ZMTE.

At the International Conference entitled "Our Eastern Roots", October 29-31 1999, to commemorate the 215th anniversary of the birth of Sándor Körösi Csorna, I first presented my lecture entitled Celtic Magyars, Magyar Celts.

Further lectures concerning the Celtic-Magyar relationship were held between 2000 and 2007 in Budapest, Frankfurt, Szentendre, Marosvásárhely, and Győr (with several returns), and also Szabadka, Kecskemét and Hódmezővásárhely.

My presently published book is: Kelta magyarok, magyar kelták, Budapest, 1999, Magyarok Háza.

My most important studies:

A kelta-magyar rokonság nyelvünk tükrében (1995)

A magyar kelták (1998)

A vaskor népe. A kelta Anyaország és a kelta Honfoglalás (2000)

A kelta mondavilág (és magyar párhuzamai) (2001)

A "főanya törzse. A kelta hitvilág, hagyományok, művészet és világkép (2003)